# Physical science

## feather

Take 1 feather in your right hand and show it to the baby. Say: look, this is a feather. Feather! Touch it. Take 2 other feathers and place them into the baby's right and left hands. Describe the feeling of touch. Say: the feathers feel so soft, fuzzy & fluffy, they feel downy and light. They also feel warm.

sound:Prepare in advance a cutting board and several feathers. Say: let's listen to what sound the feather will make. Remember that soundwaves are created when some energy is applied to the object. Then molecules of the medium start moving pushing other molecules, making them vibrate. That’s how the sound is created. Let's listen to the sound that leaf will create. Take the feather in your right hand and let it drop on the cutting board. Say: can you hear any sound? It seems the feather is so light, that no sound is produced by it! Let's do it again! Put the feather in the baby's right hand and let the baby try to squeeze it. Say: can you hear any sound?

elastisity and plasticity: we know that elasticity is ability of the object to retain its size and shape after removing the force that is applied. If the object does not deform, it is considered very elastic. Let us see if this feather is elastic. We will make an experiment. We will bend the piece of it and see if it will deform. What do you think will happen to the feather? I think it will bend and then get back to its previous shape. Now let's conduct an experiment. Take one feather and gently bend it in your right hand. Place another feather in the baby's right hand and let the baby bend it. Help if needed. Observe the feather. Say: I see that feather did not deformed, it returned to its original form. Hence we can conclude that this material is elastic. Remember, that plasticity can be tested in the same way. If after bending the object retains the new form without rupturing or breaking, it means it is very plastic. Our feather is not very plastic, because it opens up after bending.

Hardness. Say: I wonder if the feather is hard. When we say the object is hard, we mean next: when I scratch it with another sharp object there is no sign left on it, It is very difficult to leave traces on it. If the object is hard it means it is resistant to permanent shape changes. Do you think the feather is hard? Let's make a hypothesis. I think it is not hard. Let us conduct an experiment in order to prove or disprove out hypothesis. We will need a coin for that. Place the feather on the cutting board holding it by your left hand and take the coin in your right hand. Make sure your hands are in front of the baby's face so he can see well what is happening. Say: let's scratch the feather with the coin. Do that. Say: let's observe now. What do you see? Do you see any changes left on the surface of the feather? I see those lines and holes. The coin made holes in the feather. It means the feather does not have a hard surface. It's soft

Let’s explore if the feather is waterproof and absorbent. A material is waterproof when it repels liquids. What do you think about the feather? Is it waterproof? I think it is. Now let's make an experiment to prove our hypothesis. Take a large pot. Put a jar/cup into it. Put several feathers over the top of the jar/cup so it will cover the opening like a lead. Say: let’s observe. Poor water on the feathers. Say: the feathers are waterproof; water can't go through the feather into the jar/cup. What is absorbancy then? It is ability of any material to soak up the water, right? What do you see happened to the feathers? See it did not soaked any water. Let’s squeeze the feathers now to see how much water got into it. Squeeze it. Say: see, there is no water coming out of it. The feathers are not absorbent.

Since the water is here, we will add some more of it and check out if the feather floats or sinks. What do you think will happen to the feather when I put it in the water? Let's make a hypothesis. I guess the feather will float. Say: Let’s test it now. Put the feather in the water. Describe what you see: I see that the feather floats. It means that density of the feather is lower than density of water.

Glossy/mat: Say: The (object) is shiny/glossy/mat. (glossy - reflects the light, mat - absorbs the light)

Brittleness: DO you think the (object) is fragile? Make an assumption. The characteristic for fragility is brittleness. We will drop the(object) from up to the ground and observe if it breaks. Let’s do an experiment. (Take an (object) and drop it from stretched high hand). Say: look at the (object), it did not break at all! It is not brittle. Or it broke and it is brittle.

Magnetic: Let’s see if it is magnetic. We will get a magnet and put it close to the (object). See: the (object) is on the same place. It does not move so it is not magnetic.

Transparent, translucent, opaque: Hold the (object) in your left hand in front of the baby and say: (baby's name),do you think (object) is see-through? Le's make a hypothesis. I thinks it is. Now we have to make an experiment to prove or disprove it. We will need a dark room and a flashlight. Make the room darker or go to the dark room. Place the object in the left hand and the flashlight in the right hand. Switch the flashlight on and say: let's observe if the light goes through the (object). Say: I can see some light passing through the leaf. It is translucent. (If your leaf is thick – you cant and then the leaf is opaque).

Fluid.Now we will see if the (object) is fluid. My hypothesis is that it is not. We will conduct an experiment in order to check it out. Hold the (object) in your right hand with two fingers if possible. Say: Look! I am holding it and it does not change its shape and does not move at all. It does not flow.

Soluble: Let’s see if it is soluble. What do you think, is it soluble? I guess it is not. Let's again make an experiment and check it out. We will need some water. Take an empty bowl, pour some water into it. Put the leaf into water again. Say: look the leaf does not dissolve in the water. It remains as it is. It means it is not soluble.

Insulator: If we put a lot of leaves together in a pile, they will be a good insulator. They will keep warmth inside.

Burn: (object) contains oxygen molecules and can burn with high temperatures. (explain about your object)

Let’s check if the bath sponge is made of a ductile material. Let us try to stretch it and observe if it becomes a wire.If it does, then it is ductile. Start stretching. Say: see, the feather is starting to tear! It is not ductile.

Our (object) smells so fresh and nice! Or describe how it smells

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