Zoology & Botany

deer raccoon, black bear, moose, chipmunk – mountains

Prepare a picture of/book about/a toy mountains, deer, raccoon, black bear, moose, chipmunk in advance

(Show the picture of mountains) Say: Mountain ranges are found all around the world and are the result of plate movement beneath the Earth's crust. Animals that live in mountainous regions not only have to withstand dramatic temperature changes but also lower oxygen levels. Many species of hoofed and herbivorous mammal have adapted well to living in the mountains and are often found grazing on ledges and on cliff faces. These herbivores obviously attract large predators to inhabit mountainous regions.

(Show the picture of a chipmunk) Say: Lively and speedy critters, chipmunks are small members of the squirrel family. Their pudgy cheeks, large, glossy eyes, stripes, and bushy tails have made them a favorite among animators, and landed them a series of starring roles in Hollywood. Chipmunks fulfil several important functions in forest ecosystems. Their activities which include harvesting and hoarding tree seeds play a crucial role in seedling establishment.

(Show the picture of raccoon) Say: The mask of black fur that covers its eyes is its most characteristic and familiar feature. The species has grayish brown fur which keeps it warm during the cold winters. Five to eight light and dark rings alternate on its tail. In the natural world, raccoons snare a lot of their meals in the water. These nocturnal foragers use lightning-quick paws to grab crayfish, frogs, and other aquatic creatures. Raccoons also eat fruit and plants—including those grown in human gardens and farms.

(Show the picture of deer) Say: Deer are herbivores and ruminant mammals. They generally have lithe, compact bodies and long, powerful legs suited for mountain terrain; Deer are often identified with their horns which is exclusive only for males. Their teeth are adapted to feeding on vegetation, and like other ruminants, they lack upper incisors, instead having a tough pad at the front of their upper jaw. Deer are excellent jumpers and swimmers. Muscles and skeletal structure of deer are well adapted to running. They are capable of exceeding 30 miles per hour for short intervals.

(Show the picture of moose) Say: Moose are the largest of all the deer species. Males are immediately recognizable by their huge antlers. Moose have long faces and muzzles that dangle over their chins. A flap of skin known as a bell sways beneath each moose's throat.

In winter they eat shrubs and pinecones, but they also scrape snow with their large hooves to clear areas for browsing on mosses and lichens. These hooves also act as snowshoes to support the heavy animals in soft snow and in muddy or marshy ground.

(Show the picture of black bear) Say: Shaggy black fur and large size distinguish this animal from all other mammals. A white blaze is often present on the throat or chest. The black bear has a short, inconspicuous tail. Its body and legs are short. The head is broad with erect, rounded ears. The muzzle, grizzled with brown, is long and narrow. Black bear´s eyes are small and dark. Both front and hind feet have five toes, each with a large claw. Bears are excellent climbers and often climb trees when they are frightened.

Life on mountains for animals can be very harsh. Food is scarce and the climate is very cold. But these animals have adapted to survive the bitter cold.

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