# Physical science

## shapes cut from box (cardboard material)circle square triangle

sound: Prepare in advance a cutting board and several shapes made from cardboard. Say: let's listen to what sound shapes will make. Remember that soundwaves are created when some energy is applied to the object. Then molecules of the medium start moving pushing other molecules, making them vibrate. That’s how the sound is created. Let's listen to the sound that the shape will create. Take a shape in your right hand and let it drop on the cutting board. Say: can you hear the sound? It seems that the shape from cardboard is so light, that almost no sound is produced by it! Let's do it again! Put one shape in the baby's right hand and let the baby try to squeeze, crinkle and fold it. Say: can you hear any sound?

elastisity and plasticity: we know that elasticity is ability of the object to retain its size and shape after removing the force that is applied. If the object does not deform, it is considered very elastic. Pick up any shape. Talk about it, describe how many sides and angles it has. Say:Let us see if cardboard shape is elastic. We will make an experiment. We will bend the piece of it and see if it will deform. What do you think will happen to theshape made of cardboard? I think it will bend and partially get back to its original form. Now let's conduct an experiment. Take the shape and bend it in your right hand. Place another shape in the baby's right hand and let the baby bend it. Help if needed. Observe the object. Say: I see that the shape gets deformed, it also partially regains its original form. Hence we can conclude that this material is a little bit elastic. Remember, that plasticity can be tested in the same way. If after bending the object retains the new form without rupturing or breaking, it means it is very plastic. Our shape is little bit plastic, because it remains bent for a while and it does not break.

Hardness. Say: I wonder if cardboard is a hard material. When we say the object is hard, we mean next: when I scratch it with another sharp object there is no sign left on it. It is very difficult to leave traces on it. If the object is hard it means it is resistant to permanent shape changes. Do you think the cardboard-made box is hard? Let's make a hypothesis. I think it is not hard. Let us conduct an experiment in order to prove or disprove our hypothesis. We will need a coin for that. Place a piece of the box on the cutting board holding it by your left hand and take the coin in your right hand. Make sure your hands are in front of the baby's face so he can see well what is happening. Say: let's scratch the object with the coin. Do that. Say: let's observe now. What do you see? Do you see any holes left on the surface of the box? Did the surface get deformed? Yes. It did. It means the cardboard is soft, not hard.

Let’s explore if carboard shapes are waterproof and absorbent. A material is waterproof when it repels liquids. What do you think about the cardboard as material? Is it waterproof? I think it is. Now let's make an experiment to prove our hypothesis. Take a large pot. Put a jar/cup into it. Put a large carboard shape on top of the jar/cup so it will cover the opening like a lead. Say: let’s observe. Poor water on the cardboard shape. Say: the water seem to collect in the pot, it does not get indise the jar. It means that the cardboard is waterproof.

Glossy/mat: Say: The (object) is shiny/glossy/mat. (glossy - reflects the light, mat - absorbs the light)

Brittleness: DO you think the (object) is fragile? Make an assumption. The characteristic for fragility is brittleness. We will drop the(object) from up to the ground and observe if it breaks. Let’s do an experiment. (Take an (object) and drop it from stretched high hand). Say: look at the (object), it did not break at all! It is not brittle. Or it broke and it is brittle.

Magnetic: Let’s see if it is magnetic. We will get a magnet and put it close to the (object). See: the (object) is on the same place. It does not move so it is not magnetic.

Transparent, translucent, opaque: Hold the (object) in your left hand in front of the baby and say: (baby's name),do you think (object) is see-through? Le's make a hypothesis. I thinks it is. Now we have to make an experiment to prove or disprove it. We will need a dark room and a flashlight. Make the room darker or go to the dark room. Place the object in the left hand and the flashlight in the right hand. Switch the flashlight on and say: let's observe if the light goes through the (object). Say: I can see some light passing through the leaf. It is translucent. (If your leaf is thick – you cant and then the leaf is opaque).

Fluid.Now we will see if the (object) is fluid. My hypothesis is that it is not. We will conduct an experiment in order to check it out. Hold the (object) in your right hand with two fingers if possible. Say: Look! I am holding it and it does not change its shape and does not move at all. It does not flow.

Soluble: Let’s see if it is soluble. What do you think, is it soluble? I guess it is not. Let's again make an experiment and check it out. We will need some water. Take an empty bowl, pour some water into it. Put the leaf into water again. Say: look the leaf does not dissolve in the water. It remains as it is. It means it is not soluble.

Insulator: If we put a lot of leaves together in a pile, they will be a good insulator. They will keep warmth inside.

Burn: (object) contains oxygen molecules and can burn with high temperatures. (explain about your object)

Let’s check if the shape made of cardboard is ductile. Let us try to stretch it and observe if it becomes a wire.If it does, then it is ductile. Start stretching. Say: see, the cardboard is very hard to stretch! It is not stretchable at all. It tears very easily. Hence It is not ductile.

Our (object) smells so fresh and nice! Or describe how it smells

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