# Physical science

## several objects together: wooden ball, marble, a few large white beans

sound: Prepare in advance a cutting board, wooden ball, marble, a few large white beans. Say: let's listen to what sound these objects will make. Remember that soundwaves are created when some energy is applied to the object. Then molecules of the medium start moving pushing other molecules, making them vibrate. That’s how the sound is created. Let's listen to the sound that our objects will create. Take the wooden ball in your right hand and let it drop on the cutting board. Say: can you hear the sound? It is audible, I can hear it! Let's do it again! Put the wooden ball in the baby's right hand and let the baby drop it down on the cutting board. Say: let's listen to the sound of the beans and compare which one is louder. Repeat the process for the beans. Then say: the wooden ball is louder that the beans. It is louder because it is heavier and larger. Its mass helps it produce a louder sound than the beans.

elastisity and plasticity: Look, there are several objects in front of you. We know that elasticity is ability of the object to retain its size and shape after removing the force that is applied. If the object does not deform, it is considered very elastic. Let us see if the objects are elastic. We will make an experiment with each of them. We will try to squeeze them ne by one and see if they will deform. What do you think will happen to the bean if we squeeze it? What about the marble? Ball? I think that none will squeeze. Now let's conduct an experiment. Take the objects one by one and try to squeeze them in your right hand. Say: it is very hard to squeeze. It is impossible, I am not strong enough! Place the objects one by one in the baby's right hand and let the baby try to squeeze them. Help if needed. Say: can you see? We can't squeeze either of them. We can conclude that all objects are not elastic. Remember, that plasticity can be tested in the same way. If after squeezing the object retains the new form without rupturing or breaking, it means it is very plastic. Our objects are not plastic, because they do not bend or squeeze.

Hardness. Say: I wonder if these objects are hard. When we say the object is hard, we mean that when I scratch it with another sharp object there is no sign left on it. It is very difficult to leave traces on it. If the object is hard it means it is resistant to permanent shape changes. Do you think these items are hard? Let's make a hypothesis. Take each object separately and make a hypothesis is it is hard or not.Say: Let us conduct an experiment in order to prove or disprove our hypothesis. We will need a coin for that. Take the object one by one in the left hand and the coin in the right. Make sure your hands are in front of the baby's face so he can see well what is happening. Say: let's scratch the (name of the object) with the coin. Do that. Say: let's observe now. What do you see? Do you see any lines left on the surface of the object? I see that the object did not deform. It means the (name of the object) has a hard surface.

Let’s explore if thehese objects (name them one by one while touching each of them) are absorbant. What is absorbancy? It is ability of any material to soak up the water. Let us make an experiment. Get a large bowl and a jar with water. Place the objects one by one in your hand and pour water over them. Then squeeze them and say: can you see any water coming out of the (name of the object)? There is none. So the (name of the object) is not water absorbent. It is waterproof.

Glossy/mat: Say: The (object) is shiny/glossy/mat. (glossy - reflects the light, mat - absorbs the light)

Brittleness: DO you think the (object) is fragile? Make an assumption. The characteristic for fragility is brittleness. We will drop the(object) from up to the ground and observe if it breaks. Let’s do an experiment. (Take an (object) and drop it from stretched high hand). Say: look at the (object), it did not break at all! It is not brittle. Or it broke and it is brittle.

Magnetic: Let’s see if it is magnetic. We will get a magnet and put it close to the (object). See: the (object) is on the same place. It does not move so it is not magnetic.

Transparent, translucent, opaque: Hold the (object) in your left hand in front of the baby and say: (baby's name),do you think (object) is see-through? Le's make a hypothesis. I thinks it is. Now we have to make an experiment to prove or disprove it. We will need a dark room and a flashlight. Make the room darker or go to the dark room. Place the object in the left hand and the flashlight in the right hand. Switch the flashlight on and say: let's observe if the light goes through the (object). Say: I can see some light passing through the leaf. It is translucent. (If your leaf is thick – you cant and then the leaf is opaque).

Fluid.Now we will see if the (object) is fluid. My hypothesis is that it is not. We will conduct an experiment in order to check it out. Hold the (object) in your right hand with two fingers if possible. Say: Look! I am holding it and it does not change its shape and does not move at all. It does not flow.

Soluble: Let’s see if it is soluble. What do you think, is it soluble? I guess it is not. Let's again make an experiment and check it out. We will need some water. Take an empty bowl, pour some water into it. Put the leaf into water again. Say: look the leaf does not dissolve in the water. It remains as it is. It means it is not soluble.

Insulator: If we put a lot of leaves together in a pile, they will be a good insulator. They will keep warmth inside.

Burn: (object) contains oxygen molecules and can burn with high temperatures. (explain about your object)

Say: Let’s check if the objects are made of a ductile material. Let us try to stretch each one of them one by one and observe if it becomes a wire.If it does, then it is ductile. Start stretching objects, one by one. Comment on each of them: see, it is very hard to stretch! It is not stretchable at all. Hence it is not ductile.

Our (object) smells so fresh and nice! Or describe how it smells

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