# Physical science

## small polished pebbles

sound: Prepare in advance a cutting board and several small pebbles. Say: let's listen to what sound the pebbles will make. Remember that soundwaves are created when some energy is applied to the object. Then molecules of the medium start moving pushing other molecules, making them vibrate. That’s how the sound is created. Let's listen to the sound that the pebbles will create. Take the pebbles in your right hand and drop them down on the cutting board. Say: boom-boom-boom! can you hear the sound? It is loud! Let's do it again! Put a few pebbles in the baby's right hand and help the baby drop them down. Say: boom-boom-boom!

elastisity and plasticity: we know that elasticity is ability of the object to retain its size and shape after removing the force that is applied. If the object does not deform, it is considered very elastic. Let us see if the pebbles are elastic. We will make an experiment. We will try to squeeze them and see if they will deform. What do you think will happen to the pebble if we squeeze it? I think it will not squeeze at all. Now let's conduct an experiment. Take the pebble and try to squeeze it in your right hand. Say: it is very hard to squeeze it. It is impossible, I am not strong enough! Place the pebble in the baby's right hand and let the baby try to squeeze it. Help if needed. Say: can you see? We can't squeeze it. We can conclude that pebbles are not elastic at all. Remember, that plasticity can be tested in the same way. If after squeezing the object retains the new form without rupturing or breaking, it means it is very plastic. Our pebbles are not plastic, because they do not bend.

Hardness. Say: I wonder if the pebble is hard. When we say the object is hard, we mean that when I scratch it with another sharp object there is no sign left on it. It is very difficult to leave traces on it. If the object is hard it means it is resistant to permanent shape changes. Do you think the pebble is hard? Let's make a hypothesis. I think it is hard. Let us conduct an experiment in order to prove or disprove out hypothesis. We will need a coin for that. Take the pebble in the left hand and the coin in the right. Make sure your hands are in front of the baby's face so he can see well what is happening. Say: let's scratch the pebble with the coin. Do that. Say: let's observe now. What do you see? Do you see any lines left on the surface of the pebble? I see no lines. It means the pebble has a hard surface.

Let’s explore if the pebbles are absorbant. What is absorbancy? It is ability of any material to soak up the water. Let us make an experiment. Get a large bowl and a jar with water. Place some pebbles in your hand and pour water over them. Then squeeze them and say: can you see any water coming out of pebbles? There is none. So the pebbles are not water absorbent. They are waterproof.

Glossy/mat: Say: The (object) is shiny/glossy/mat. (glossy - reflects the light, mat - absorbs the light)

Brittleness: DO you think the (object) is fragile? Make an assumption. The characteristic for fragility is brittleness. We will drop the(object) from up to the ground and observe if it breaks. Let’s do an experiment. (Take an (object) and drop it from stretched high hand). Say: look at the (object), it did not break at all! It is not brittle. Or it broke and it is brittle.

Magnetic: Let’s see if it is magnetic. We will get a magnet and put it close to the (object). See: the (object) is on the same place. It does not move so it is not magnetic.

Transparent, translucent, opaque: Hold the (object) in your left hand in front of the baby and say: (baby's name),do you think (object) is see-through? Le's make a hypothesis. I thinks it is. Now we have to make an experiment to prove or disprove it. We will need a dark room and a flashlight. Make the room darker or go to the dark room. Place the object in the left hand and the flashlight in the right hand. Switch the flashlight on and say: let's observe if the light goes through the (object). Say: I can see some light passing through the leaf. It is translucent. (If your leaf is thick – you cant and then the leaf is opaque).

Fluid.Now we will see if the (object) is fluid. My hypothesis is that it is not. We will conduct an experiment in order to check it out. Hold the (object) in your right hand with two fingers if possible. Say: Look! I am holding it and it does not change its shape and does not move at all. It does not flow.

Soluble: Let’s see if it is soluble. What do you think, is it soluble? I guess it is not. Let's again make an experiment and check it out. We will need some water. Take an empty bowl, pour some water into it. Put the leaf into water again. Say: look the leaf does not dissolve in the water. It remains as it is. It means it is not soluble.

Insulator: If we put a lot of leaves together in a pile, they will be a good insulator. They will keep warmth inside.

Burn: (object) contains oxygen molecules and can burn with high temperatures. (explain about your object)

Let’s check if the pebble is a ductile material. Let us try to stretch it and observe if it becomes a wire.If it does, then it is ductile. Start stretching. Say: see, the pebble is very hard to stretch! It is not stretchable at all. Hence It is not ductile.

Our (object) smells so fresh and nice! Or describe how it smells

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